What are the Different Types of Excavation Methods?

You may have decided to install that outdoor kitchen you have always dreamed of. Or you may want to extend the driveway or add a patio. You may have other projects on your mind – removing an old and weathered wall or a shed or something else. Whatever the project, it will be required to excavate the area to improve it. It is a task that is best handled by experienced, qualified, and fully-equipped professionals.

There are different types of excavation processes. The selection of the right process for your project will be determined by the contractor that you hire.

Types of Excavation by Application

The type of excavation used for your project can vary based on the type of application.

1. Cut & Fill

This type of excavation involves moving earth from one place to another for making the ground more level. Its key benefit is the reduction in material and labor usage for ground leveling or grading. The amount of material that is cut is roughly equivalent to the amount of fill required elsewhere on the site. For example, the topsoil can be removed and used to build an elevated piece of land for the construction project.

The company handling your cut and fill excavation project should follow proper procedures. For example, when the excavated material is meant to be used in foundations, it must first be compacted. This is required to prevent settling and cracks in the foundation.

2. Dredging

Some of the key applications of dredging are as follows:

  • For removing sediment deposits or debris
  • For building waterfront living spaces
  • For building retaining walls along waterways

3. Trench Excavation

Trench excavation refers to the type of excavation where the excavated area has greater length than depth. It is used for following types of applications:

  • Installing pipelines
  • Laying shallow foundation
  • Burying utility lines

4. Basement Excavation

This is a major excavation project and requires the services of specialized and well-equipped professionals. More commonly, it is performed when you are building a house that needs to have a basement as its foundation.

There is more to this type of excavation than digging and removing the material. Additional steps are taken by your contractor to create the basement foundation. It is important that this type of excavation is done by experts because the foundation supports the structure of your home.

Types of Excavation by Materials

Excavations can also be divided in terms of the materials involved:

1. Topsoil Excavation

This involves the removal of the top layer of soil to prepare the land for a project. This can also involve clearing the land of topsoil, sand, gravel, and various forms of debris. Your contractor may also provide site preparation and grading services to create a foundation for your project.

2. Earth Excavation

This involves removal of the underneath soil layer – the one under the topsoil. Preparing to dig a foundation is a common example.

3. Muck Excavation

Muck, the mixture of soil and water, is considered to have damaging effects for construction projects. This type of excavation involves removal or spreading of muck. Spreading allows the soil to dry before the project can begin.

4. Rock Excavation

This is a more complex type of excavation and requires specialized equipment. The processes involved can include drilling or blasting through rock to clear the surface for the project.

So, these are the more commonly used excavation techniques for landscaping and construction projects. It is important to realize that excavation is a complex and hazardous process and must be handled only by experts who are experienced, certified, and well-trained. So you should find an experienced contractor that can handle the type of project you have at hand for effective results.